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2020 Civil Service Exam Preparation: Weakening and Strengthening the Confusion Item

2019-12-27 09:50:47 | Source: CCP Education Sun Yao

The weakened and strengthened questions occupy an unshakable position in the test, but many students still cannot reach the level of satisfaction to themselves when the analysis of the questions is clear and the thinking of the questions is accurate. Low, distracted, and at a loss. If you are confident enough in your analysis, one of the most important reasons may be that there is a problem with the analysis options, and it falls into the trap of the questioner in the option settings Can't extricate themselves, the public education tells everyone how to prevent common problems that may occur with options:

I. resort to ignorance

Recourse to ignorance is a typical logical fallacy. This is a typical logical mistake to resort to ignorance. The lack of evidence to prove the existence of a certain situation cannot be regarded as sufficient evidence that a situation does not exist. When this kind of error appears in the options, everyone is often attracted by his "unable to prove" characteristics, while ignoring that "unable to prove" is actually two-sided, and cannot prove its right or wrong.

[Example] Some studies claim that cancer cells are afraid of heat and high body temperature can fight cancer. Organs that are most susceptible to cancer in the human body include the lungs, stomach, large intestine, and breasts, all of which have low body temperature. "High-temperature organs" such as the heart are not prone to cancer. Therefore, you can use exercise, drinking hot water, bathing and other methods to increase body temperature to fight cancer. Which of the following, if true, can best refute the above argument? ()

A. Affected by breathing, diet, etc., the oral temperature of a person is generally lower than the rectal temperature, and the incidence of rectal cancer is higher than oral cancer worldwide.

B. There is a precise regulation mechanism of human body temperature, which basically remains stable, and there is no obvious temperature difference between various organs in the body.

C. Hyperthermia may help radiotherapy or some chemotherapy to play a better role, but the research data to prove its reliability is still insufficient

D. Malignant tumors rarely occur in the heart, because the cardiomyocytes no longer divide and proliferate here, regardless of the temperature.

[Answer] D.

[Chinese public analysis] The problem is that organs with low body temperature are susceptible to cancer, and "hot organs such as the heart are not easy to get cancer." The conclusion that "you can use exercise, drinking hot water, bathing and other methods to increase body temperature to fight cancer" Item A, pointed out that the oral temperature is lower than the rectal temperature, that is, the rectal temperature is higher than the oral temperature, but the incidence of rectal cancer is higher than that of oral cancer, which indicates that raising body temperature cannot fight cancer. Such examples are not necessarily representative, so the rebuttal strength is weak; item B, points out that there is no obvious temperature difference between various organs in the body, indicating that the arguments for the questions are inaccurate, and to some extent they refute the questions. ; Item C, pointed out the lack of research data to prove the reliability of hyperthermia, which is resort to ignorance, can not refute the conclusions; item D, pointed out that the heart is not easy to get cancer because the heart muscle cells no longer divide and proliferate, regardless of temperature This shows that cancer has nothing to do with temperature, and raising the body temperature cannot achieve the purpose of anti-cancer.

Recourse to authority

It refers to the use of authority as the basis of the argument in the argument, not to support the argument with logic or facts. However, it should be noted that the word “authority” in the option does not mean that the option must be wrong, but only Simply playing the name of "authority", without any substantial evidence, made the mistake of resorting to authority.

[Example question] The research team conducted research on Jiaozi (a type of currency) in the Song Dynasty. It was found that people used copper and silver more in daily life. Based on this, the research team believed that the emergence of Jiaozi was mainly due to large scales. Caused by the emergence of caravan activities.

Which of the following is true and best strengthens the opinion of the research team?

A. The members of the research team are famous historians

B. Records of business activities reflected in relevant historical literature of the Song Dynasty

C. The amount of currency for commodity transactions involved in the daily life of the Song Dynasty people was very small

D. In the Song Dynasty, large-scale commodity circulation appeared, and the use of copper and silver became very inconvenient in the process of commodity transactions.

[Answer] D.

[Chinese public analysis] The point of view is that the emergence of intercourse is mainly caused by the emergence of large caravans and commercial activities. The argument is that in daily life, people use copper or silver more. If you want to strengthen, you need to explain the difference between business activities and daily life. The D item explains the difference between the two and it can be strengthened. Item A made a mistake of "requesting authority"; item B "mentioned" could not prove to be the cause of intercourse; item C was just an explanation of the argument. So the correct answer is D.

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(Responsible editor: Zhang Ye)

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